Major Parts of Airplane and their Functions

Airplanes are manufactured in different shapes and sizes according to the need and desire. When Airplane is travelling it has to lift its own weight, the fuel, the passengers and the luggage.

Function of the airplane part

The wings generate most of the lift to hold the plane in the air. To generate lift, the airplane must be pushed through the air. The air resists the motion in the form of aerodynamic drag.

Modern airliners use winglets on the tips of the wings to reduce drag.

Turbine Engine
The turbine engines, which are located beneath the wings, provide the thrust to overcome drag and push the airplane forward through the air. Smaller, low-speed airplanes use propellers for the propulsion system instead of turbine engines.

The pilots sit in the cockpit at the front of the fuselage.

Fuselage (Body)
The fuselage or body of the airplane, holds all the pieces together.

Slats are used at takeoff and landing to produce additional force. The spoilers are also used during landing to slow the plane down and to counteract the flaps when the aircraft is on the ground.

Most airliners can also be rolled from side to side by using the spoilers. Spoilers are small plates that are used to disrupt the flow over the wing and to change the amount of force by decreasing the lift when the spoiler is deployed.

The outboard hinged part of the wing is called the aileron; it is used to roll the wings from side to side.

The wings have additional hinged, rear sections near the body that are called flaps. Flaps are deployed downward on takeoff and landing to increase the amount of force produced by the wing. On some aircraft, the front part of the wing will also deflect.

The hinged part of the horizontal stabilizer is called the elevator; it is used to deflect the tail up and down.

The hinged part of the vertical stabilizer is called the rudder; it is used to deflect the tail to the left and right as viewed from the front of the fuselage. 

Vertical Stabilizer
The vertical stabilizer keeps the nose of the plane from swinging from side to side, which is called yaw

Horizontal Stabilizer
The horizontal stabilizer prevents an up-and-down motion of the nose, which is called pitch.